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One thing about words is that they can be defined in so many ways, and their definitions can change over time. This is no different than the definition of a marketer. Marketing is a field that has made drastic changes over the last 100 years.
But even with all of that change, the definition of a marketer has not changed on a few key components.
The Definition of a Marketer
A person or company that advertises or promotes something.
‘a leading manufacturer and marketer of medical products’
- ‘They produce high-impact decorative labels for high-velocity consumer goods marketers.’
- ‘The expansion accommodates a multi-year contract with a national marketer of frozen treats.’
- ‘The lyrics aptly sum up the questions being asked of the baby-boomer generation by marketers from all walks of life.’
- ‘Processing its own product is definitely on the horizon for the organic marketer.’
- ‘”Premium” is the keyword for ice cream marketers.’
- ‘All three supply milk for what has been called the nation’s largest organic dairy marketer.’
- ‘At a deeper level, science has a more noble purpose than winning marketers.’
- ‘Even schools, where milk had long held a treasured spot on every child’s lunch tray, became fair game for soda marketers.’
- ‘To expand my own marketing mix, I decided to go the route of working directly with a professional marketer.’
- ‘It is the largest full-service marketer of livestock in the Northeast.’
Definition of Marketing
Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. (Approved 2017)
Definition of Marketing Research
Marketing research is the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information–information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes the results, and communicates the findings and their implications. (Approved 2017)
Definition of Brand
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.
ISO brand standards add that a brand “is an intangible asset” that is intended to create “distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefit/values.”
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Types of Marketing
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), influencer marketing focuses on leveraging individuals who have influence over potential buyers and orienting marketing activities around these individuals to drive a brand message to the larger market.
In influencer marketing, rather than marketing directly to a large group of consumers, a brand inspires or compensates influencers (which can include celebrities, content creators, customer advocates, and employees) to get the word out on their behalf.
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), relationship marketing refers to strategies and tactics for segmenting consumers to build loyalty.
Relationship marketing leverages database marketing, behavioral advertising and analytics to target consumers precisely and create loyalty programs.
Viral marketing is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message.
Nicknamed “viral” because the number of people exposed to a message mimics the process of passing a virus or disease from one person to another.
Green marketing refers to the development and marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe (i.e., designed to minimize negative effects on the physical environment or to improve its quality).
This term may also be used to describe efforts to produce, promote, package, and reclaim products in a manner that is sensitive or responsive to ecological concerns.
Keyword marketing involves placing a marketing message in front of users based on the specific keywords and phrases they are using to search.
A key advantage of this method is that it gives marketers the ability to reach the right people with the right message at the right time. For many marketers, keyword marketing results in the placement of an ad when certain keywords are entered.
Note that in SEO, this term refers to achieving top placement in the search results themselves.
Guerilla marketing describes an unconventional and creative marketing strategy intended to get maximum results from minimal resources.
4 P’s of Marketing
A product is defined as a bundle of attributes (features, functions, benefits, and uses) capable of exchange or use; usually a mix of tangible and intangible forms.
Thus a product may be an idea, a physical entity (a good), or a service, or any combination of the three. It exists for the purpose of exchange in the satisfaction of individual and organizational objectives.
While the term “products and services” is occasionally used, product is a term that encompasses both goods and services.
Price is the formal ratio that indicates the quantity of money, goods, or services needed to acquire a given quantity of goods or services.
It is the amount a customer must pay to acquire a product.
Place (Or Distribution)
Distribution refers to the act of marketing and carrying products to consumers. It is also used to describe the extent of market coverage for a given product.
In the 4Ps, distribution is represented by place or placement.
According to the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), promotion marketing includes tactics that encourage short-term purchase, influence trial and quantity of purchase, and are very measurable in volume, share and profit.
Examples include coupons, sweepstakes, rebates, premiums, special packaging, cause-related marketing and licensing.
When you’re putting together a marketing program for your business, concentrate on the basics, the four key components of any marketing plan: Products and Services, Promotion, Distribution, and Pricing.
The name of the game in marketing is attracting and retaining a growing base of satisfied customers. Creating and implementing a marketing plan will keep your marketing efforts focused and increase your sales.
Apple Inc. Marketing Success Story
Started from a garage in California’s Menlo Park in 1976, Apple Inc. has grown into the largest company in the world by market capitalization. With over 100,000 employees worldwide and $233 billion in revenue in 2015, if Apple was a country, its market capitalization would make it the 20th largest country in the world by GDP.
In addition to developing the Apple I and Apple II lines of personal computers starting in 1976, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs went on to develop a number of unique and innovative technology products, including the Mac computer, the iPod, iPhone, iPad, Apple TV, and the Apple Watch.
While Steve Jobs is considered a technical genius, he was also a brilliant marketer.
Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak once said that marketing was Jobs’ greatest skill. His keynote introduction of the iPhone on the Macworld stage in 2007 with his trademark “One More Thing…” joke is still regarded as one of the finest marketing performances ever.
Apple’s 1984 Super Bowl ad for the launch of the Macintosh is widely considered to be the best Super Bowl commercial ever. The decision to proceed with the ad was highly controversial within Apple. The board of directors was not in favor of the ad, viewing it as costly and a slap in the face to competitor IBM. However, Jobs loved the ad and offered to pay for the airtime. Within the first 100 days of releasing the ad, Apple recorded $150 million in sales of the Macintosh.
Jobs had a passion for making innovative, beautifully designed products for the mass market.
“I love it when you can bring really great design and simple capability to something that doesn’t cost much,” he once stated. “It was the original vision for Apple. That’s what we tried to do with the first Mac. That’s what we did with the iPod.” (Smithsonian.com)
Beauty and simplicity became core brand values of Apple, but while many Apple products were very good at marketing themselves, Jobs recognized early on that he needed to integrate form, function, and great marketing to become really successful, and by doing so he propelled Apple into one of the world’s most recognized consumer brands.
Even when Apple was not first out of the gate with a revolutionary new product, it was often the company that took an existing product, re-engineered it in a unique fashion, developed a brilliant marketing campaign, and make it into an enormous commercial success. The iPhone is such an example, which when released destroyed competitors such as Nokia and Blackberry within a few years.
Apple’s marketing success revolves around building and sustaining brand loyalty. Apple customers tend to be extremely loyal to the brand and many devoted Apple fans will purchase every new release of an Apple product. It is not uncommon for consumers to line up for hours or days for a new iPhone or other Apple product release. According to a 2014 Morgan Stanley Research study, Apple’s iPhone has a 90 percent brand retention rate over Samsung, LG, etc.
Apple is a consistent winner of awards for marketing excellence, including:
- Apple Inc. “Get a Mac” Named the Most Successful Marketing Campaign of 2007 at the Annual Effie Awards (The “Get a Mac” ad campaign was hugely successful for Apple, and they experienced 42% market share growth in its first year. The series portrayed a young, hip Mac owner versus a bumbling, nerdy-looking, decidedly uncool PC owner.) In 2010, Adweek declared “Get a Mac” to be the best advertising campaign of the decade.
- The CMO Survey Award for Marketing Excellence overall winner in 2012 and 2016.
- “Brand of the Year” in 2013 in the categories of smartphones, tablets, and computers by marketing research firm Harris Interactive.
Marketing Example: One of the maxims of marketing is that a profitable sales volume is more desirable than the maximum sales volume.